The Jubilee Singers become world-famous singers of black spirituals, performing before the Queen of England and the Emperor of Japan. He is the first African American to hold that position. On April 14, the U. He is the first African American to preside over a predominately white university. On Easter Sunday more than African Americans were killed in northwest Louisiana while defending Republicans in local office against white militia. Later that year in what would be known as the Coushatta Massacre 30 people including white and black Republican officeholders and their supporters were killed by white militia.
Federal troops are sent to Vicksburg, Mississippi in January to protect African Americans attempting to vote and to allow the safe return of the African American sheriff who had been forced to flee the city. Similar statutes had existed in the North before the Civil War. Over the next 27 years fourteen black jockeys would ride the wining horse at the Derby. Lewis H. He is the first African American to receive a Ph. Hayes Republican , is inconclusive when the votes in the Electoral College are disputed.
Although Democratic Presidential candidate Samuel Tilden won the popular vote, Southern Democratic leaders agree to support Rutherford Hayes's efforts to obtain the disputed electoral votes of Florida, Louisiana and South Carolina in exchange for the withdrawal of the last federal troops from the South and the end of federal efforts to protect the civil rights of African Americans.
This is the first of hundreds of all or mostly black towns created in the West. President Rutherford B. His jurisdication is the District of Columbia. Hayes and assembled guests. Approximately six thousand African Americans leave Louisiana and Mississippi counties along the Mississippi River for Kansas in what will be known as the Exodus. On May 14, Sgt. In January the Tennessee State Legislature votes to segregate railroad passenger cars. Spelman College, the first college for black women in the U. Packard and Harriet E. The Virginia State Assembly established the first state mental hospital for African Americans and locates it near Petersburg.
The 50th Congress has no black members. Intimidation keeps most black voters from the polls. On October 16, U. On November 3, white conservatives in Danville, Virginia, seize control of the local racially integrated and popularly elected government, killing four African Americans in the process. Judy W. Reed of Washington D.
She is granted patent number , on September 23 for her creation of a dough kneader and roller. The company manufactured and sold telephone and telegraph equipment. All major unions of the federation excluded black workers. He is the first African American to head a major political party at the state level in U. By blacks were no longer players in Major League Baseball. He is believed to be the first African American mayor of a predominantly white town in the United States. C, open their doors. On November 1, the Mississippi Legislature approves a new state Constitution that disenfranchises virtually all of the state's African American voters.
The Mississippi Plan used literacy and understanding tests to prevent African Americans from casting ballots. William Henry Lewis and William Tecumseh Sherman Jackson were the first known black players on a white college football team when they played at Amherst College in Massachusetts. Lewis was team captain for the season. On July 14 three companies of the 24th Infantry occupy the Coeur d'Alene Mining District in northern Idaho which has been declared under martial law following a violent strike by silver miners. They remain for four months.
A record people are lynched in the United States this year, are black and 69 white. In the period between and , Tuskegee Institute compiled nationwide lynching statistics. In that 69 year period, 4, people were lynched including 3, blacks and 1, whites. Ninety-two women were victims of lynching, 76 were black and 16 were white.
Although southern states accounted for 90 percent of the lynchings, every state in the continental U. The patient, a victim of a chest stab wound, survives and lives for twenty years after the operation. White terrorists attack black workers in New Orleans on March Six blacks are killed. Booker T. He says the Negro problem would be solved by a policy of gradualism and accommodation. Plessey v. Supreme Court rules that Southern segregation laws and practices Jim Crow do not conflict with the 13th and 14th Amendments. The Court defends its ruling by articulating the separate but equal doctrine.
Mary Church Terrell is chosen as its first president. His work advances peanut, sweet potato, and soybean farming.
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John Shippen became the first black professional golfer when he participated in a tournament in England. The first Phillis Wheatley Home is founded in Detroit. These homes, established in most cities with large African American populations, provide temporary accommodations and social services for single African American women. Only males whose fathers or grandfathers were qualified to vote on January 1, , are automatically registered.
Others African Americans must comply with educational or property requirements. The Spanish-American War begins on April Sixteen regiments of black volunteers are recruited; four see combat in Cuba and the Philippines Five African Americans win Congressional Medals of Honor during the war. A number of black officers command troops for the first time. On November 10, in Wilmington, North Carolina, eight black Americans were killed as white conservative Democrats forcibly removed from power black and white Republican officeholders in the city. The song is eventually adopted as the black national anthem.
Twelve African Americans and seven whites were killed. Washington to promote business enterprise. This year marks the beginning of significant West Indian immigration to the United States. By nearly two-thirds of the landowners in the Mississippi Delta were black farmers, most of whom had bought and cleared land after the Civil War. An estimated 30, black teachers have been trained since the end of the U. Civil War in They are a major factor in helping more than half the black population achieve literacy by this date. White, Republican of North Carolina, leaves office.
No African American will serve in Congress for the next 28 years. At the end of the meeting the President informally invites Washington to remain for dinner, making the Tuskegee educator the first black American to dine at the White House with a president. Roosevelts casual act generates a national furor. Washington, calling for agitation on behalf of African American rights. Alois Alzheimer, becomes a widely published pioneer in Alzheimers disease research.
Fuller also becomes the nations first black psychiatrist. Seymour, is considered the beginning of the worldwide Pentecostal Movement. On August 13 in Brownsville, Texas, approximately a dozen black troops riot against segregation and in the process kill a local citizen. When the identity of the killer cannot be determined, President Theodore Roosevelt discharges three companies of black soldiers on November 6. Madam C. Two blacks and four whites are killed. This is the first major riot in a Northern city in nearly half a century.
On April 6, Admiral Robert E. The Knights of Peter Claver, the first permanent national black Catholic fraternal order, is founded in Mobile, Alabama. Census of U. The League is organized to help African Americans secure employment and to adjust to urban life. On December 19, the City Council of Baltimore approves an ordinance segregating black and white neighborhoods. Louis, Missouri. On April 11, the Woodrow Wilson administration initiates the racial segregation of work places, rest rooms and lunch rooms in all federal offices across the nation. The mask, initially used to rescue trapped miners, is eventually adopted by the U.
At its height the organization claims nearly two million members.
Some , African-Americans join the armed forces with more than half serving in the French war zone. Over 1, black officers command these troops. Forty people are killed, hundreds more injured, and 6, driven from their homes. This is the first major civil rights demonstration in the 20th Century. Twenty-nine black soldiers are executed for participation in the riot.
On July , a race riot in Chester, Pennsylvania claims five lives, three blacks and two whites. On July , in nearby Philadelphia, another race riot breaks out killing four, three blacks and one white. However, the northern migration of African Americans continues. By there were 1,, more black Americans in the North than in Eighty-three African Americans are lynched during the year, among them a number of returning soldiers still in uniform.
The West Virginia State Supreme Court rules that an African American is denied equal protection under the law if his jury has no black members. The twenty five race riots that take place throughout the nation prompt the term, Red Summer. C, July Aug. Over the next four decades Micheaux will produce and direct 24 silent films and 19 sound films, making him the most prolific black filmmaker of the 20th Century. Census of , Black population: 10,, 9. Eight teams are part of the league. On August 26, the 19th Amendment to the Constitution is ratified giving all women the right to vote.
Nonetheless, African American women, like African American men, are denied the franchise in most Southern states. This is the first major play of the Harlem Renaissance. The violence destroys a thriving African American neighborhood and business district called Deep Greenwood. His artists will include Mamie and Bessie Smith. It will become the largest African American bank in the nation before it collapses during the Stock Market Crash.
On January 4, the small, predominately black town of Rosewood, Florida is destroyed by a mob of white residents from nearby communities. He is sent to the Federal Penitentiary in Atlanta in Bessie Smith signs with Columbia Records to produce race records. Her recording, "Down-Hearted Blues," becomes the first million-selling record by an African American artist.
Two years later she records "St. Johnson, quickly becomes a forum for artists and authors of the Harlem Renaissance. Rojo Jack is the first African American to particiapte in professional car racing when he competes in a race in Honolulu Hawaii. The Sweet family is represented at their trial by Clarence Darrow and acquitted of the charge. Although African Americans have been serving as U. Foreign Service. Carter G. He is the first African American to represent a northern, urban district. Census of , Black population: 11,, 9. James V. It is also one of the earliest galleries to highlight African American art.
Soon afterwards the NAACP mounts a new strategy primarily using lawsuits to end racial discrimination. Public Health Service. The experiment ends in On April 1, the U. The University of Maryland chooses to admit its first black students. Nearly black organizations are represented. She is the highest ranking black official in the Roosevelt Administration and leads the Black Cabinet.
She is also the first black woman to receive a presidential appointment. William H. Hastie, former advisor to President Franklin Roosevelt, is confirmed on March 26 as the first black federal judge after his appointment by Roosevelt to the federal bench in the Virgin Islands.
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Braddock in Chicago. The company eventually becomes the Katherine Dunham Group. On December 12, the U. Gaines v. Canadarules that a state that provides in-state education for whites must provide comparable in-state education for blacks. Jane M. She becomes the first black actor to win an academy award. Charles R. The thesis includes his research which discovers that plasma can replace whole blood transfusions.
This migration transforms American politics as blacks increasingly vote in their new homes and put pressure on Congress to protect civil rights throughout the nation. Their activism lays much of the foundation for the national Civil Rights Movement a decade later. The Naval Academy at Annapolis and other naval officer schools accept African American men for the first time. They are the largest concentration of black military personnel in the history of the nation.
On April 3, the U. The fund is incorporated in New York. Colonel Benjamin O. Davis, Jr. He is the first African American to command a military base. By the end of the war one million African American men and women have served in the U. The show airs on NBC. Charles S. Channing H. The work will become the most popular textbook on African American history published in the 20th Century. She wins the high jump competition in the London Olympics.
On October 1, the California Supreme Court voids the law banning interracial marriages in the state. On May 3, the U. It begins broadcasting in Atlanta on October 3. William A. Hinton is the first black professor at the Harvard University Medical School. She wins the prize in Poetry. Juanita Hall became the first African American to win a Tony award. On May 24, the U. Supreme Court rules racial segregation in District of Columbia restaurants is unconstitutional. On May 24, a mob of 3, whites attempt to prevent a black family from moving into a Cicero, Illinois apartment.
Harry T. Benjamin O. At the time he is the highest ranking black elected official in the nation. He also is the first African American to command an airbase. Freeman was the first black woman to win a major civil rights case. Texas, the U. Supreme Court ruled that Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the U. Chuck Berry, an early breakthrough rock and roll artist, records "Maybellene" with Chicago's Chess Records. Martin Luther Kingbecomes the leader of the Boycott.
On January 15 President Dwight D. Eisenhower signs Executive Order which creates the President's Committee on Government Policy to enforce the federal government's policy of nondiscrimination in federal employment. On May 31 the U.
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Martin Luther King Jr. She is suspended on February 7 after a riot ensues at the university to protest her presence. Lucy is expelled on February He appears on NBC. On November 13, the U. The Mississippi Sovereignty Commisison is formed in Jackson, the state captial, to maintain racial segregation in Mississippi.
The act establishes the Civil Rights section of the Justice Department and empowers federal prosecutors to obtain court injunctions against interference with the right to vote. It also creates the federal Civil Rights Commission with the authority to investigate discriminatory conditions and recommend corrective measures. She later launches a crusade for justice for black women and works to strengthen the black family. In September President Dwight D. The troops remain at the high school until the end of the school year.
Perry H. Young becomes the first black pilot for a commercial passenger airline New York Airways. The following year, , Ruth Carol Taylor becomes the first commercial passenger airline flight attendant Mohawk Airlines. Martin Luther King, Jr. Louis E. Lomax becomes the first African American newscaster for a major network station. Open tennis championship in Forest Hills.
It is the first play by an African American woman to be produced on Broadway. Eisenhower on May 6. The Act established federal inspection of local voter registration rolls and introduces penalties for anyone who obstructs a citizen's attempt to register to vote or to cast a ballot. Kennedy defeats Vice President Richard Nixon in one of the closest elections in history.
Many observers credit African American voters with Kennedy's narrow margin of victory. Riots on the University of Georgia campus in September fail to prevent the enrollment of the institutions first two African American students, Hamilton Holmes and Charlayne Hunter Gault. Ernie Davis, a running back at Syracuse University, becomes the first African American athlete to receive college football's Heisman Trophy. On the day he enters the University, he is escorted by U. On May 3, Birmingham police use dogs and fire hoses to attack civil rights demonstrators.
Despite Governor George Wallace's vow to block the schoolhouse door to prevent their enrollment on June 11, Vivian Malone and James Hood register for classes at the University of Alabama. They are the first African American students to attend the university. Over , people gather in Washington, D. On January 8, President Lyndon Johnson in his first State of the Union Address declares unconditional war on poverty in America, thus initiating a broad array of government programs designed to assist the poorest citizens of the nation including a disproportionate number of African Americans.
The act bans discrimination in all public accommodations and by employers. On March 7, six hundred Alabama civil rights activists stage a Selma-to-Montgomery protest march to draw attention to the continued denial of black voting rights in the state. The marchers are confronted by Alabama State Troopers whose attack on them at the Edmund Pettus Bridge is carried on national television. The 3, marchers at the beginning of the trek eventually grow to 25, when they reach the Alabama capitol on March Thirty four people are killed and one thousand are injured in the five day confrontation.
Weaver becomes the first African American to hold a cabinet post. She becomes the first African American woman elevated to a Federal judgeship. Soon after crossing into Mississippi Meredith is shot by a sniper. Andrew F. However he is denied the seat by the Georgia Legislature because of his opposition to the Vietnam War. Bond is eventually seated after a bitter court battle. It is his first public criticism of the Vietnam War. On June 12, the U. Between July 23 and July 28, 43 are killed, 1, are injured and over 7, are arrested. Albert William Johnson is the first African American awarded a dealership from a major automaker when he opens an Oldsmobile dealership in a predominately black neighborhood in Chicago.
In the wake of the assassination cities in 29 states experience uprisings. By April 11, 46 people are killed and 35, are injured in these confrontations. Kennedy is assassinated on June 5 in Los Angeles. On May 5, Moneta Sleet, Jr. Howard N. At the time he is the first African American mayor of a predominately white Southern city. Over , people attend what is to that point the largest musical concert in history. Clifton Wharton, Jr. He is the first African American to lead a major, predominately white university in the 20th Century.
Davis is captured and brought to trial. She is acquitted of all charges on June 4, Gravely, Jr. Four days later 29 inmates and ten hostages are killed when state troopers and correctional officers suppress the uprising.
Johnson Products, a hair care company, becomes the first black-owned company to be listed on a major U. She is the first African American to campaign for the nomination. South since Wilt Chamberlain of the Los Angeles Lakers becomes the first National Basketball Association player to score over 30, points during his career. He is reelected four times and thus holds the mayors office for 20 years. On June 21, U. District Judge W. They are the first African Americans to hold these posts in the 20th century.
Surgeon General. Wallace D. He changes the organizations direction and its name to the World Community of al-Islam. Janie L. She graduates in College and university enrollment for African American students rises sharply from , in to 1,, in She becomes the first African American woman to hold a cabinet position. Ambassador to the United Nations. He is the first African American to hold that post. This final episode achieves the highest ratings to that point for a single television program.
On June 28, the U. Frank E. Petersen, Jr. Richard Arrington, Jr.
He is the first black person to win the award in a category other than peace. Brown holds the Speakership until when he is elected Mayor of San Francisco. The riot which generates 15 deaths is the worst in the nation since Detroit in Robert L. It will eventually sell 45 million copies worldwide, becoming the best selling album in music history. Bluford, Jr. Robert C. The show runs for eight seasons and will become the most successful series in television history featuring a mostly African American cast.
The bombing leaves 11 people dead and homeless. She is the first African American to hold that honor. Grambling State University's football coach Eddie Robinson becomes the coach with the most wins in college football history. On January 28, Dr. At the age of 20, Tyson is the youngest fighter to win the crown. Gordon is appointed Commandant of the Cadets at the U.
Military Academy at West Point.
Johnnetta B. Jacksonreceives 1, delegate votes at the Democratic National Convention on July The number needed for the nomination, which goes to Michael Dukakis, was 2, This is the largest donation ever made by a black American to a college or university. Marcelite Jordan Harris is the first black woman brigadier general in the U. Army and the first woman to command a mostly male battalion.
Walter E. The beating of King is captured on videotape and broadcast widely prompting, an investigation and subsequent trial of three officers. Bush, is confirmed by the U. A number of factors contribute to the growth of U. First, like Canada to the north, the U. Second, these resources, along with a large labor pool bolstered by immigrants, fuel the development of industry and the creation of a middle class of consumers who buy manufactured goods with their wages.
The international political significance of the U. As the United States emerges as an important world economic and political power, it also becomes central to the international art scene, with New York usurping the preeminent role previously played by Paris.
At the beginning of the century, many American painters continue to work in a style influenced by French Impressionism. By the nineteen-teens, greater realism prevails in the work of the Ashcan School artists. The industrial and urban landscape that emerges in twentieth-century North America is captured by many artists. Among those who celebrate factories and other industrial forms are the Precisionist artists , including Charles Demuth — , Charles Sheeler — , and Ralston Crawford —
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