Therefore, some at least s Really liked this book. Therefore, some at least short introduction to how do you work out things from mathematical viewpoint. As author took liberty to venture into social, moral, and various other connotations of the gaming. And responsibilities game authors and designers should face when creating certain game mechanics and flavors. Of course as with any other book there are things I would oppose at what how fun occurs in the games and especially since I read Theory of fun in game design which is really great book about that specific point in games.
In the end I would like to note that this book does not cover the basis on where ideas come from. Which is understandable since it is huge topic on it self. But a topic on conversion from idea to enjoyable game design would be great. Either way thanks to the author on writing this great book and putting the formal, basically academic viewpoint on game design processes. And I am certain that game designers utilizing this book would have it a lot easier then before.
As I did when I started reading this book and integrating ideas and processes into designing the game I am currently working on. May 15, Hao rated it it was amazing. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. Apr 21, Michael Prokofyev rated it really liked it. The book provides machinations framework, which is an essential point of view on games, for game designers. Even if you won't use it, knowing about its existence is very beneficial.
Feb 21, Scott Lewis rated it really liked it. This is the best book about game design that does not deal in gross generalities. It teaches a toolset of how to design systems and how to understand the player's input and decisions into that system. The toolset is not generally applicable to all games or situations, but I feel like all game designers should read this book to be able to help visualize and understand their game loop and the decisions that go into it.
Dec 22, Sergey Bir marked it as gave-up-on Shelves: skimmed. Liked the chapters about systems and emergence. Machinations tool breaks games into economic systems and i might use it some day. Aug 10, Kars rated it really liked it Shelves: non-fiction. A bit slow going in places, but the patterns and the Machinations framework are well worth the price of admission alone. It has already made a difference in my practice as an applied game designer.
Grant Lovelace rated it it was amazing Apr 06, Tergum rated it really liked it Jan 06, Jens rated it it was amazing Aug 14, Mallaharsha rated it it was amazing May 14, Pat rated it it was amazing Sep 22, Ibrahim Al-Hasan rated it it was amazing Aug 15, Timothy Nutt rated it liked it Dec 18, Hector Fuster rated it really liked it Jun 21, Francisco Eduardo Alves rated it really liked it Jun 29, Tory Martin rated it really liked it Oct 16, Jan rated it liked it Nov 07, Ignatius3 rated it really liked it Mar 21, Jascha rated it did not like it Dec 22, Nazmul Ahmed Noyon rated it really liked it May 27, Mahmoud Lotfy rated it it was amazing Apr 20, Antoaneta Bilyanska rated it really liked it Jul 06, Sadok Kohen rated it really liked it Jan 06, Slyvnr Groo rated it really liked it Jul 09, Vegard Polden rated it it was ok Dec 07, Majid rated it it was amazing Sep 09, Jonathan rated it really liked it Oct 13, Joseph rated it it was amazing Sep 28, Xiaozhou rated it really liked it Nov 08, There are no discussion topics on this book yet.
Readers also enjoyed. Goodreads is hiring! Because of their overall importance for learning, we report on all three dimensions but allot the most space for discussing learning outcomes related to the personal dimension of learning code and academic subject content.
Half of the studies took place out of schools e.
Collectively more than 9, youth participated in the studies reviewed for this article; in some instances, dozens of schools were involved but not all students participated in surveys. In the following sections, we review and discuss in more detail how these outcomes relate to the personal, social, and cultural dimensions of constructionist gaming. A substantial body of research has now examined learning in the context of game-making activities.
Leading the way are numerous studies in which students in schools have designed games that are focused on learning programming concepts. In the original game-making project Kafai, , a class of fourth-grade students who programmed fraction games for younger students in their school learned about key computational concepts such as loops, conditionals, and even tail recursion—a procedure they used to structure the question-and-answer dialogue of their multiple-choice problems. They also improved significantly in computational practices such as writing and debugging programs when compared to students who were learning Logo programming solely in the context of smaller independent projects unrelated to gaming.
Such comparative evaluations to assess and evaluate students' learning when making games are still rare but helped to tease out the effects of context games vs. This study also confirmed the findings of Palumbo's review that revealed that the context, complexity, and time frame in which beginners encounter programming matter considerably in their capacity to learn to code. The analyses revealed not only the use of simple programming constructs but also more complex constructs such as student-created abstractions, concurrent execution, and event handling—all indicative of higher order patterns.
Likewise, a review of games created by 59 middle school girls with Stagecast Creator showed the use of key computational concepts such as loops, variables, and conditionals but only moderate usability and low levels of code organization and documentation Denner et al. Although the learning of computational concepts can appear heavily scaffolded in these contexts by providing students with scripts that can be remixed and highly prescriptive game contexts e.
Pac-Man , or make your own platform game , these scaffolds likewise need to be recognized as often necessary first steps to bring children into the game-making process. We have made the case elsewhere that such forms of remixing are authentic forms of programming practices in the larger community and, in fact, offer introductory computer science instruction a valid pedagogical approach to reach children it never could reach before. But learning computational concepts didn't just happen in school classrooms where students have access to computers and teacher support. Of particular interest here is how making game projects compares to programming other projects, such as music videos or stories, in terms of engaging with computational concepts.
Conducting work in after-school settings faces additional challenges in that members' attendance is not usually mandatory and thus much more likely to fluctuate; furthermore, the use of standard assessments such as pre- and postexams is not typically an option, which itself may explain why many of the research studies resort to examine the game programs themselves as an indicator of youth learning computational concepts. We also found compelling evidence that youth engage in various computational practices as they are making games.
In the fraction game design project, case studies documented how students debugged, revised, and tested their games over and over again, especially after the periodical user evaluation sessions they conducted with younger students, over a 6-month period. Moreover, posttests revealed game design students' significantly higher performances in designing and debugging given Logo code when compared to students in control classes Kafai, More than 10, students have used Agentsheets, a programming environment that students and youth from diverse backgrounds use to make simulation games e.
Based on an analysis of games made by 30 college students in a semester-long course and 73 games made by 33 middle school in an 8-week-long class, an analysis of the comprehensive skill score of computational thinking patterns revealed that over time in this case a sequence of different game designs that students were asked to make in the course , both groups improved in their performance.
As expected, the improvement was more substantial for the college undergraduates than for the middle school students because they not only came with more experience but also spent more time on their games. Although school-based programs can provide more scaffolded introductions to computational thinking practices in outlining a sequence of game designs such as with Agentsheets or offering instructional support by having a teacher present, we also found evidence of these computational practices in after-school programs. His most significant challenges were revising his code in order to make it more efficient to re-create the intuitive and fluidity of movement and feedback characteristic of the original game.
Constructionist Gaming: Understanding the Benefits of Making Games for Learning
Finally, young game designers also expand their computational perspectives. Likewise, participants in the urban after-school game design program, nearly all of them male African Americans, had increased awareness of higher education and career pathways K. These findings of expanding students' interests and perspectives in computing have been confirmed in other studies DiSalvo et al. A notable exception is the recent study by Robertson , who found that female students using Adventure Author to make games did not inspire girls' interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics STEM careers—an aspect that we discuss in more detail in a later section.
Making games for learning not only increases perspectives on computing but also, equally important, changes students' attitudes toward the goals of learning, allowing children to better grasp the long-term benefits of computing and digital design in terms of a potential career pathway. These findings also reinforce the wider body of research e. It might also be one of the reasons why so few researchers have examined motivation beyond classroom learning and rather turned to examine career aspirations as a result of making games for learning.
Like the instructionist counterpart, constructionist gaming also focuses on learning academic content such as mathematics, science, and the language arts prevalent in K curriculum. One could consider the computational concepts, practices, and perceptions reviewed in the previous section to be part of computer science that is now becoming again a part of the standard curriculum.
In fact, in the original conception of constructionist gaming, learning of coding and other content were seen as mutually beneficial to each other engaging in not only personal expression but also knowledge transformation. In the early s, no small part of Papert's success in introducing the then foreign concept of computer programming to K schools came from his use of the grounded or practical approach to explain code as a way to make mathematics more tangible and real to students Returning for a moment to the original game-making project, fourth-grade students not only programmed games but explicitly focused these on teaching fractions to younger students in their school—a topic that they also covered in their math class at the very same time Kafai, Again, the posttests revealed that students became not only significantly more proficient in programming Logo when compared to students in the same school who learned Logo in a computer lab in small, disconnected programming activities but also significantly better at understanding and representing fractions measured in pre—post tests.
More recent studies of making math games in Scratch confirmed these findings and found that students activated their everyday mathematical experiences and understanding Ke, In observing creative practices as they pertain to constructionist gaming, young designers learn about and appreciate artistic principles by making artistic choices within a single modality e.
There are also many examples that connect game making to language arts, but the most extensive research to date conducted by Robertson has implemented game design with more than students in dozens of primary and secondary school across the United Kingdom. She found that students using Adventure Author for making their games improved in their understanding of coding but that game design did not inspire girls' interest in STEM careers.
These connections of content learning to game making also illustrate the potential of curriculum integration. Rather than conceptualizing game-making activities solely as a context for learning programming and software design skills as discussed in a previous section and thus linking them to computer science, here learning coding is situated within a broader context of application development. After all, applications design can focus on content design, in which case designers need to learn not only about the content and skills to be included but also about coding at the same time.
Some studies have observed that when student game designers are charged with this dual focus of learning content and coding, the game world and story crafting takes precedence over engagement with content Ke, These challenges and disconnects between game mechanics and content are not new; in fact, they can be found in many instructional games that only showcase superficial or extrinsic integration of game and content Squire, Finally, there is another important learning benefit in game making that goes beyond learning coding and content: the idea of children learning about their own thinking and learning, also called reflection or metacognition.
Indeed, in one of the few experimental studies that pitched playing versus making games, education researchers Vos, van der Meijden, and Denessen found that students who engaged in making a game that the other group of student just played demonstrated significantly deeper engagement in their learning and strategy use, which involved system analysis, decision making, and troubleshooting.
Of course this comparative study analyzes only students on the elementary level and is far from definitive in its examination of confidence, motivation, and content acquisition based upon the playing versus making paradigm. But it certainly points out that making games requires distinct ownership over the content and such ownership both requires and can instill a certain level of confidence in the learner.
Whereas 20 students the experimental group learned problem-solving skills through designing and testing their own video game using Microsoft Kodu, 24 students the control group simply practiced their problem-solving skills by playing already-created games in Kodu. At the end of the intervention, students who designed their own video games significantly outperformed students on the validated assessment called the Program for International Student Assessment in terms of 19 questions related to the three problem types: system analysis and design, troubleshooting, and decision making.
These meta-dimensions of learning in game making have also garnered the attention of other education researchers who are interested in games as learning environments. Although coding and content capture the more easily recognized knowledge and skills addressed with making games, design, problem solving, or system thinking skills, assessment-wise, also fall into a broader overarching category that we called learning about learning.
Numerous other studies have used game making to examine this learning Allsop, ; DeLay et al. Making games requires designers to think about a metastructure in which the game mechanics, interactions, and content are to be embedded. In particular, the notion of system thinking has received much attention, perhaps because of the growing interest in using complex system thinking as a framework to approach science learning and the notion of computational thinking as designing system.
These design skills are also present in context where students do not use a programming language but rather a scripting context or design tool. Most prominent here is the work on GameStar Mechanic Salen, , an environment that was specifically developed for kids to make and share game designs that can be fixed by others—unlike the programming languages that can be used to program many things, games being just one app.
Although we can argue to what extent GameStar Mechanic engages makers in some form of programming, it is clear that GameStar Mechanic engages students in explicit design and system thinking. The social dimensions of constructionist gaming examine the collaborations and communities in which game making can take on various forms, ranging from small-scale collaborative programming in pairs to involving classes in schools and districts, setting up national competitions, and engaging online communities with thousands of programmers.
However, few of these different social designs have been the focus of extensive and comparative research such as the studies on pair programming designed by Denner and Werner that, inspired by the success of pair programming on the college level, brought the paired approach to younger students' game making. In fact, most studies in this section present models of different collaborative arrangements and illustrate their applications in a test case but do not provide the detailed analysis of academic learning outcomes listed in the previous section.
We suspect that some of this focus on measuring learning outcomes solely in terms of academic content and technical skill stems from researchers' attempts to legitimize game making as worthy of schools' attention. The social affordances of children making video games for themselves and their peers is decidedly less of a metric of evaluation, which is unfortunate given schools mixed record in facilitating meaningful group work and peer collaboration. Denner and Werner took the pair-programming premise and found that college students were not the only ones who could benefit from such an approach.
This, in turn, made the girls more likely to persist in programming before asking the instructor for external help or even giving up altogether. Many of the game design projects discussed in the previous sections have students individually design and program a game while leveraging the presence of other class members to serve as the audience and informally play these games.
Working with fourth graders from nine public elementary schools in Ontario, Canada 18 classes total , Owston and colleagues found not only that the children were motivated to create quiz-based video games for the sake of their peers playing them but also that their spelling, grammar, and punctuation in devising such questions was significantly improved for the sake of their peers being able to effectively read and play the game as it was intended.
Thus students' opportunities to develop such collaborative and coding skills and grow more independent were delayed in the early weeks of the study because the range of their activities was so delineated by grade-level seniority. These success of learning both coding and content through peer-to-peer collaborative game making has inspired the integration of such activities into the regular curriculum to engage not just whole classes but also connections across districts. Results are promising in not only getting students more effectively collaborating around personally meaningful projects but also increasing students' self-efficacy with digital technology.
They found that participants' sense of self-efficacy improved across all four settings based on pre-and postintervention surveys. Interestingly, young game makers who reported their parents had less post-secondary education reported increased rates of self-efficacy than those participants who came from homes where one or both parents had attended college. Likewise, participants from the formal, school-based settings reported significantly more gains in self-efficacy than those within the informal, after-school club environment.
Certainly, developing a working knowledge of Flash and ActionScript was a key component in boosting children's confidence here. But even more instrumental was the fact that the students had developed content that had meaning and importance outside of school. Driving peer-to-peer collaboration through this competitive spirit is indeed becoming more common. Encouraging children to design their own educational video games using a range of free programs e. Every year, 15 middle school and high school students from around the country are selected as winners, and the number of entries has grown from a modest in to more than 4, this past year.
In postclass surveys as well as in follow up interviews, participants reported that more than academic grades and more than potentially placing as a finalist in the Challenge, they were motivated by the approval of their peers during the final session in which the entire school was invited into the classroom to play and offer feedback on their video games. Many online communities have followed the lead of the STEM National Video Game Challenge and begun to engage their members by regularly issuing community-based challenges and competitions around game making.
The Scratch website www. Of course, students are drawn to these collaborations even without the impetus of external competitions. Outside of schools, game-making activities are a driving force in many online communities. This is well illustrated with Aragon and colleagues' analysis of the collaborations at the Scratch website. Through a series of case studies, their analysis points out that one of the primary reasons that children are drawn to Scratch as a tool is the potential to find like-minded game makers at the Scratch website.
The sophistication of the game's graphics and the ease of game play attracted hundreds of views and downloads on its initial release. Multiple remixes of the project soon followed. Soon Gray Bear Productions created games such as Forest Frenzy and A Night at Dreary Castle , which reflected the designers' growing sophistication in creating graphics, plotlines, and game play. Forest Frenzy had 19 versions over multiple months before a final glitch-free version was completed. Luther and Bruckman investigated how such collaborations form and what keeps them together, as quite frequently members have never once met in person and must solely rely on web-based interactions.
Their research focused on the Newgrounds website www. They found that these collaborations are rarely successful. Although Gee is referring here to game playing, his sentiment is certainly appropriate for game making as well. Conceptual understanding of subjects such as mathematics and science, as well as the dynamics of teamwork and task prioritization, are not learned as ends in and of themselves but put expressly toward the purpose of creating genuinely playable games, resulting in more genuine—and collaborative—learning experiences.
Although children developing communities around game making and game playing certainly have the potential to mimic professional practice, there is also the wider question as to who actually participates and who can participate in these aforementioned communities. This larger issue of gender differences is not germane to gaming alone: It is one that has plagued programming and STEM in the learning sciences at large. Yet despite these persistent issues, constructionist gaming approaches have been seen as a possible remedy for addressing the gender divide so present in the technology culture at large.
Although some of the studies presented in this section have examined the influence on computational perspectives such as STEM career interests, low and behold controlled comparisons between different groups in terms of other learning outcomes have been rare. An early study of game making revealed no significant gender differences in learning programming and disbanded with conventional wisdom at the time believed to be true: Girls could be interested in programming and be interested in gaming if they were just given the opportunity to make their own Kafai, Yet this push for students—and particularly girls—to make video games over digital stories or interactive art projects also stirs some levels of resentment among certain circles.
Although there has been more recent success with game making to bring girls into the so-called clubhouses of computing and gaming, the push for girls making games also revealed a problematic aspect: Why did girls have to design games to prove they were, in fact, tech savvy?
Furthermore, findings from a recent study have began to question to what extent engagement with game making also leads girls to more positive engagement with computing careers Robertson, Although girls learned as much about coding as the boys participating in the same research project, they did not express any further career interests. Clearly this is an issue that needs further investigation. However, there may very well be a reason that games are given such a priority over other digital projects such as interactive stories and art.
Adams and Webster's analysis of more than middle school and high school projects in Scratch and Alice suggests that games, more than other project type, best capture certain programming features such as conditional statements and variables. But Adams and Webster's analysis suggests that games by their variable nature necessitate a wider range of technical skills and, perhaps even more important, the capacity to think systematically in terms of inputs and outputs as a recurring relationship.
Moving beyond gender concerns, a small number of studies dealt specifically with the race and ethnicity of their participants and how this relates to their prior experiences. For instance, working with African American high school boys testing video games for design errors through the Glitch Game Testers program speaks well to the challenges of consistently engaging youth from struggling schools DiSalvo et al. Using the Unity 3D game engine, Lameman and Lewis had the 10 teenage participants choose tribal stories from their own childhood to serve as the starting point for their game narrative.
Repenning and colleagues reported that Agentsheets was also used in tribal communities, engaging American Indian students with success in making games. Likewise, Denner et al. What is troubling overall from the reviewed body of research on children making games is how little participant background is actually reported and reflected in study designs. Whether an activity taps into these identities and allows for personal expression plays no small role in whether a child will be attracted and persist with any such activity.
This focus on other factors when recruiting underrepresented students and youth does not negate the tremendous pull that video games have on children. Indeed, video games are one of the great equalizers in modern society—played by virtually everyone regardless of race, gender, and now age. It is an open question what impact this widespread use has on designing and researching constructionist gaming activities that address various cultural aspects of the students' identities.
Computers at these lower income schools are less tools for making content than tutors, skilling-and-drilling students on particular academic content. Such a fact needs to be taken into consideration when implementing a game design course or workshop. The wide gap in how computers are implemented into school-day curricula may be also one of the reasons why many researchers have examined motivation beyond classroom learning, turning instead to examine career aspirations as a result of making games for learning.
Repenning's and Ryoo and colleagues' research on game design specifically focuses on how such active, productive engagement with digital media actually shifts children's attitudes toward computing and opens up the possibility of computing as a career. Making games for learning not only increases motivation for learning but, equally important, also changes students' attitudes toward the goals of learning, allowing children to better grasp the long-term benefits of computing and digital design in terms of a potential career pathway.
What we can learn from this review? No matter which programming tool was used for game making—whether AdventureAuthor, Agentsheets, Alice 3D, Flash, Greenfoot, Kodu, Logo, Scratch, or Storytelling Alice, to name but a few—no matter which context school, after-school club, or online community and no matter which age group from elementary to high school and college students , making games proved to be a compelling context for learning computational concepts and practices and broadening participants' perspectives on computing and STEM overall.
Some studies framed their outcomes within the constructionist framework, whereas others used making games for learning as a context to study problem solving, academic subject matters, or other skills. Even within assessing students' learning of programming, we could see a wide variety of approaches focusing on either particular computational concepts or practices such as debugging and remixing, whereas others examined the nature of problem solving or planning involved in making games. In the following sections, we first discuss the challenges and then articulate directions for serious gaming that connect instructionist and constructionist approaches.
The results from our review on making games for learning, although overwhelmingly positive, also raise several concerns: a the involvement in game design, b the framing of learning with and about computation, c the collection of data, d the lack of negative findings, e the few studies focused on collaborative learning, and f the absence of online opportunities.
One of the obvious challenges in pulling together findings from such a diverse set of studies is the wide variety of contexts, tools, age of students, and time periods used to make games. An unsurprising consequence of such diversity is that the games generated and the learning benefits conferred vary significantly in form and substance. Although the shorter time frames offer opportunities for experimental designs that assess particular outcomes e. We hope that both formats continue to be employed in future research to further our understanding of learning in game making.
Second, what researchers conceptualized as learning differed as well.
Game Mechanics, Advanced Game Design by Ernest Adams | | Booktopia
Third, we also note that the standards of reporting varied; in many instances basic demographic data on subjects simply were not provided, details on the implementation of game-making activities were absent, and the nature of the data analysis was not included or fully articulated. We suspect that omission in many instances is not a matter of neglect but rather reflective of how reporting requirements differ between computer science and education.
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As the new field of computer science education is being constituted and professional organizations such as the American Education Research Association and the International Society for Technology in Education increasingly incorporate CS education, we expect to see improvements here.
Fourth, few negative findings were observed in our review. The most prominent negative outcome was the lack of success in constructionist gaming to raise girls' interest in STEM careers identified in Robertson's large-scale study, which is contrary to the many other studies that used game making to broaden participants' perspectives on and interest in computing and STEM.
This finding is perhaps less surprising considering that gaming and technology cultures have traditionally been unaccepting and even hostile to female individuals. Other researchers e. We are obviously not looking for discounting the value of the constructionist gaming approach. Rather, we are interested in having a more fine-grained understanding of what works for whom and in which context so to better design effective and supportive learning opportunities. Following up on this point, another area ripe for more documentation and investigation is how collaborative arrangements can enhance and further learning opportunities in constructionist gaming.
We know from research on game play how important collaborations are to motivate and sustain player's efforts to move ahead in the game. Many studies obviously took informal advantage of collaboration between game designers by having them play one another's games and provide feedback, but they did not explicitly investigate outcomes as Huang, Hong, and Chen did in their study examining the impact of peer feedback.
How such collaborations in game making can be constructed and supported is a wide territory for further research. Finally, related to this absence on collaboration in game making, we also noted an absence in research studies specifically identifying online opportunities to make and share games.
Of interest, those that do rely on effective social skills as much as technical prowess. Gaining access to a wide and appreciative community means that players have the opportunity to leverage that community as an extension of the tool itself, with meaningful feedback serving to help fledgling designers gain a foothold into what works in game design, whereas more experienced designers can grow in proficiency and create increasingly intricate games. But before this community can be leveraged, young makers must first have the confidence to share their own work, as well as learn the nature and respect the role of constructive feedback.
This is no small process and one that future research is responsible for documenting. Many of the benefits that we observed for constructionist gaming can also be found in instructionist gaming, where students play educational games for learning. But what distinguishes constructionist gaming most from instructionist gaming is its focus on engaging students in design.
How can the particular software be programmed to optimize game play and how does one map the wider gaming narrative to be consistently dynamic and also fair? These are the difficult questions game makers must regularly ask, and the learning benefits from asking such questions cannot be ignored.
These outcomes are perhaps what most distinguish making games from playing games for learning, but we also see here the greatest potential for integration. We already know that metagaming Gee, is an important part of gaming culture: There are game players who venture into scripting their own fan sites, building complex spreadsheets to understand system designs, and some even venturing into making their own level extensions and games.
We can already see instances where this is happening, not the least in commercial games. Such games encourage modding precisely because it brings the end user closer to the game. Connected gaming opportunities need to be designed for serious gaming. For instance, the well-known game SimCity and the newly released Scratch 2. From the instructionist gaming side, SimCity illustrates how playing a game can contribute to a better understanding of the constantly shifting dynamics of a simulated world Salen, From the constructionist gaming side, new features in Scratch 2.
Although the tools in SimCity are programmed by experts, the tools in Scratch are programmed by players themselves. Going forward, there is no reason that SimCity couldn't offer programmable tools that would allow end-users to customize their investigations, whereas preprogrammed tools in Scratch can be incorporated for those wanting to experience an actual simulation before designing their own.
In fact, the latter approach already exists. In bringing together instructionist and constructionist approaches in connected gaming we open up new perspectives for participation in serious gaming. Of course, he was commenting on writing his book here. But writing, like programming, is a maker activity where people construct an artifact. It does not matter whether the artifact is digital, material, or a hybrid of the two.
Most of the current discussions on serious gaming have focused on playing games for learning, and most return to Gee's learning principles as the touchstone of what can be learned from the process. We have argued here that those personal, social, and cultural principles that are rooted in playing games for learning likewise exist when making games for learning. And why not? Gee's main point was that games were great examples of learning environments.
But of course not everything has to be a game played; it can also be a game made. When the field of serious gaming started, attention focused on proving the effectiveness of instructionist gaming R. Constructionist gaming was not part of either discussion in building the field of serious gaming. But if we want to realize the potential of serious gaming, we need embrace a broader agenda that recognizes that opening access and participation in serious games is not solely a matter of making better games for learning but allowing students themselves to make the games they would like to see and play.
If one does belong to a culture in which video games are important, transforming oneself from a consumer to a producer of games may well be an even more powerful way for some children to find importance in what they are doing. This analysis and writing of this paper were supported by a collaborative grant from the National Science Foundation NSF to the first author. The views expressed are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of the National Science Foundation, University of Pennsylvania, or College of Charleston.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Educational Psychologist. Educ Psychol. Published online Feb 6. Yasmin B. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail: ude. Kafai and Quinn Burke. This is an Open Access article. Non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly attributed, cited, and is not altered, transformed, or built upon in any way, is permitted. The moral rights of the named author s have been asserted. Abstract There has been considerable interest in examining the educational potential of playing video games.
Papert later defined it this way: Constructionism—the N Word as opposed to the V word—shares Constructivism's connotation to learning as building knowledge structures irrespective of the circumstances of learning. Papert's firsthand experience researching Brazilian samba schools encapsulated his sense of social norms and interactions as pivotal to any form of learning: These are not schools as we know them; they are social clubs with memberships that may range from a few hundred to many thousands.
Personal Dimensions Learning coding A substantial body of research has now examined learning in the context of game-making activities. Learning content Like the instructionist counterpart, constructionist gaming also focuses on learning academic content such as mathematics, science, and the language arts prevalent in K curriculum. Learning about learning Finally, there is another important learning benefit in game making that goes beyond learning coding and content: the idea of children learning about their own thinking and learning, also called reflection or metacognition.
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Social Dimensions The social dimensions of constructionist gaming examine the collaborations and communities in which game making can take on various forms, ranging from small-scale collaborative programming in pairs to involving classes in schools and districts, setting up national competitions, and engaging online communities with thousands of programmers. Cultural Dimensions Although children developing communities around game making and game playing certainly have the potential to mimic professional practice, there is also the wider question as to who actually participates and who can participate in these aforementioned communities.
Challenges for Constructionist Gaming The results from our review on making games for learning, although overwhelmingly positive, also raise several concerns: a the involvement in game design, b the framing of learning with and about computation, c the collection of data, d the lack of negative findings, e the few studies focused on collaborative learning, and f the absence of online opportunities.
Opportunities for Connected Gaming Many of the benefits that we observed for constructionist gaming can also be found in instructionist gaming, where students play educational games for learning. Open in a separate window. Funding This analysis and writing of this paper were supported by a collaborative grant from the National Science Foundation NSF to the first author.
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Related Game Mechanics: Advanced Game Design (Voices That Matter)
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