Newton’s Laws and Particle Motion


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The story of a particle motion: Newton's laws

In a quantum gas the particle does not move like the famous falling apple, but it oscillates. With a special trick, the atoms were made to interact strongly with each other.

Newton's laws of motion applied to circular motion

At such extreme conditions the atoms form a quantum fluid whose motion is restricted to the direction of the tubes. The physicists then accelerated an impurity atom, which is an atom in a different spin state, through the gas.


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In our everyday world this corresponds to the apple falling from the tree. The scientists, however, observed that the quantum wave of the atom was scattered by the other atoms and reflected back again. The result is a striking oscillatory movement.


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The experiment demonstrates that Newton's laws cannot be used in the quantum realm. For a massive body moving in an inertial reference frame without any other forces such as friction acting on it, a certain impulse will cause a certain change in its velocity.


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The body might speed up, slow down or change direction, after which, the body will continue moving at a new constant velocity unless, of course, the impulse causes the body to stop. There is one situation, however, in which we do encounter a constant force — the force due to gravitational acceleration, which causes massive bodies to exert a downward force on the Earth. Notice that in this case, F and g are not conventionally written as vectors, because they are always pointing in the same direction, down.

Newton's laws of motion - Wikipedia

The product of mass times gravitational acceleration, mg , is known as weight , which is just another kind of force. Without gravity, a massive body has no weight, and without a massive body, gravity cannot produce a force.

In order to overcome gravity and lift a massive body, you must produce an upward force m a that is greater than the downward gravitational force mg. If the rocket needs to slow down, speed up, or change direction, a force is used to give it a push, typically coming from the engine. The amount of the force and the location where it is providing the push can change either or both the speed the magnitude part of acceleration and direction.

Yet, that's what experimental physicist from Innsbruck in collaboration with theorists from Munich, Paris and Cambridge have discovered for a quantum particle.

News Release / University of Innsbruck

To observe the quantum particle oscillating back and forth the team had to cool a gas of Cesium atoms just above absolute zero temperature and to confine it to an arrangement of very thin tubes realized by high-power laser beams. By means of a special trick, the atoms were made to interact strongly with each other.

At such extreme conditions the atoms form a quantum fluid whose motion is restricted to the direction of the tubes. The physicists then accelerated an impurity atom, which is an atom in a different spin state, through the gas.

Article at tum.de

As this quantum particle moved, it was observed to scatter off the gas particles and to reflect backwards. This led to an oscillatory motion, in contrast to what a marble would do when falling in water. The experiment demonstrates that Newton's laws cannot be used in the quantum realm.

Newton’s Laws and Particle Motion
Newton’s Laws and Particle Motion
Newton’s Laws and Particle Motion
Newton’s Laws and Particle Motion
Newton’s Laws and Particle Motion
Newton’s Laws and Particle Motion
Newton’s Laws and Particle Motion
Newton’s Laws and Particle Motion

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