This decision rejected the doctrine of terra nullius. It recognised for the first time that Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples who have maintained a continuing connection with their country, according to their traditions and customs, may have their rights to land under traditional law recognised in Australian law.
The New Media Nation: Indigenous Peoples and Global Communication - Valerie Alia - Google книги
Click here to read the Mabo Case No. In , the Native Title Act was passed to recognise and protect surviving native title rights throughout Australia and set up a process for settling claims and conflicts about native title. The Act:. In the Wik case, the High Court held that pastoral leases in Queensland do not necessarily cancel out native title rights and interests and that they could co-exist with the rights of pastoralists. The amendments:. The Croker Island case recognised that native title could exist on sea country but that any native title rights that were recognised must not exclude the rights of any other person.
In the Ward case, the High Court found that native title is made up of a bundle of rights and that these rights can be extinguished either in part or as a whole. One way native title rights are extinguished is by the grant of inconsistent non-Indigenous interests in the same area of land. For example, the creation of a pastoral lease in Western Australia extinguishes the right of the traditional owners to exclusive possession of that land. However, it does not extinguish the rights of the traditional owners to enter the land in order to hunt or fish or perform ceremonies, because these rights can co-exist with the rights of the pastoralist.
In the case of freehold, native title is completely extinguished. The High Court found that in order to have native title recognised, the claimant group must show that it, or its members have practised their traditional laws and customs continuously since European settlement.
Hospital statistics relating to Indigenous people , Occasional Paper, Self-assessed health status of Indigenous Australians , Occasional Paper, Indigenous mothers and their babies - health statistics, , National Perinatal Statistics Unit, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Henry Reynolds, The other side of the frontier: an interpretation of the Aboriginal response to the invasion and settlement of Australia , James Cook University, Townsville, Henry Reynolds, Why weren't we told?
A personal search for the truth about our history , Viking, Ringwood Victoria, Roadmap for Reconciliation , Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation, Mabo No. Pollack, D. Note that the report will be released in November Search Search search. The United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights has explained the basis for recognising this relationship as follows: 'Indigenous or aboriginal people are so-called because they were living on their lands before settlers came from elsewhere; they are the descendants - according to one definition - of those who inhabited a country or a geographical region at the time when people of different cultures or ethnic origins arrived, the new arrivals later becoming dominant through conquest, occupation, settlement or other means I ndigenous people have retained social, cultural, economic and political characteristics which are clearly distinct from those of the other segments of the national populations.
The difference in John Deeble's and Access Economics' figure is because the latter is based on a greater estimate of Indigenous health needs. Northern Territory - Being 'aboriginal or half-caste' if the Chief Protector believed it was necessary or desirable. Queensland - For 'aboriginal' children, and 'half-cast' children living with Aboriginal parent s , if the Minister ordered it.
These laws did not apply to Torres Strait Islanders. South Australia - Legitimate children that is, children whose parents were lawfully married could only be removed if they were over 14 or had an education certificate. Illegitimate children could be removed at any time if the Chief Protector and State Children's Council believed they were neglected. Victoria - If the Governor of the State was satisfied the child was neglected or left unprotected.
From , for the better care, custody and education of the child. Western Australia - Police, protectors and justices of the peace could remove any 'half-caste' child to a mission. Extended to all 'natives' under 21 in Where were the children placed? How many children were removed? What were the consequences of the removals? Table Established the Aboriginal Lands Trust of South Australia made up of Aboriginal members and provided for the transfer of former Aboriginal reserves to the control and management of Aboriginal communities. Returned over , square kilometres in remote north-west South Australia to the traditional owners.
Returned 81, square kilometres of former reserve land in central western South Australia to the traditional owners. These blocks were finally returned once they were made safe in March The first was the Aboriginal Lands Act Each Act transferred ownership of small areas of reserve or mission lands to trusts or Aboriginal organisations.
No claims process established. These small areas make up a very low proportion of the area of Victoria. Some national parks, including Uluru and Kakadu, were also returned on condition that the owners would share their management with the National Parks and Wildlife Service. A claim process was set up which allowed traditional owners to lodge claims to other Crown land until Claims are heard by Aboriginal Land Commissioners who make recommendations to the Federal Government.
Four Aboriginal Land Councils assist with claims and with land management. The Act also established a regime for development, exploration and mining on Aboriginal land, and the payment of 'mining royalty equivalents' by government to traditional owners. Indigenous people with a historic residential connection to land forming part of a pastoral lease, and who 'can demonstrate a present need for a community living area' may apply to a Tribunal for a recommendation which the Minister has the discretion to act upon that the government excise the land from the lease and transfer it to an incorporated Aboriginal association.
The estate transferred is a fee simple estate, but the pastoral lessee may apply to have it reincorporated into the lease if it is not occupied by the Aboriginal claimants for a period exceeding five years. Transferred Aboriginal reserves to Local Aboriginal Land Councils, and enabled them to make claims for unoccupied Crown land not needed for a public purpose.
It is not necessary for claimants to prove a traditional relationship with the land; a historical relationship may be sufficient. Allows Indigenous communities to claim land in national parks. The total area of National Park affected by the legislation is , hectares.
Provides for grants of land in the Jervis Bay Territory. The trustee is usually a community council but can be a group of individuals.
Claims could also be made for specified Crown land and claims would be decided by a Land Tribunal. At , 80 parcels of land had been transferred to Indigenous communities, comprising a total area of about , hectares. Established an elected Aboriginal Land Council and transferred ownership of 12 areas of particular significance to Tasmanian Aboriginal people to the Council's ownership. The amount of land concerned is 0. The Bonner Report is in the process of being implemented.
If the Protection Board believed it was in the interest of the moral or physical welfare of the child. Source: Toronto Star April 16, Infrastructure or training Academic Title: Dirty water. Example: "The boil water advisory is being used as an alternative to [water] treatment" Steve Hrudey of University of Alberta.
Source: National Post Apr 9, Results The initial search retrieved articles. Table 4 Descriptive information extracted from Canadian news articles on Indigenous drinking water security from Indigenous voices focused on drinking water challenges All newspapers quoted Indigenous peoples more often than non-Indigenous peoples, except for the National Post where government sources were the most quoted group Fig.
Focus on conflict and cooperation between stakeholders Sources often discussed conflicts among groups when discussing various drinking water security challenges. Scarce coverage up until the Kashechewan water crisis Two periods of interest can be discerned from the newspaper coverage: 1 limited coverage from to ; and 2 an increase and subsequently steady coverage from to Fig. Discussion News coverage of water security challenges in Indigenous communities in Canada from were examined in this study. Conclusion Any combination of media attention, public inquiry, and new legislation can be expected when water security issues emerge, as in the case of the Walkerton, Ontario water crisis; however, the same level and timeliness of response was absent for Indigenous communities, as in the case of Kashechewan, Ontario water crisis.
Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank Ms. Availability of data and materials Not applicable. Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Consent for publication Not applicable. Ethics approval and consent to participate Not applicable. Additional file Additional file 1: 16K, docx Descriptive information, drinking water issues, and framing of articles extracted from articles for deductive qualitative analysis.
References 1. Environment Canada: Drinking water questions. Accessed 26 Sep Adelson N. The embodiment of inequity: health disparities in Aboriginal Canada. Can J Public Health. Eggertson L. Can Med Assoc J. Safe drinking water standards for First Nations communities. Patrick RJ. Uneven access to safe drinking water for First Nations in Canada: Connecting health and place through source water protection. Health Place. Accessed 3 Jan Water quality and human health in indigenous communities in Canada. Glob Bioeth. Accessed 18 Feb Accessed 19 Feb Accessed 8 Jan Accessed 4 April Drinking water and potential threats to human health in nunavik: Adaptation strategies under climate change conditions.
Weather, water quality and infectious gastrointestinal illness in two Inuit communities in Nunatsiavut, Canada: Potential implications for climate change. Bentley D, Murphy B. Can J Native Stud.
Health Canada. Drinking water advisories in First Nations communities in Canada. A National Overview — Lui E. Ford JD. Indigenous health and climate change. Public Health. Hyslop K: A fresh fix for unsafe water on First Nations reserves. Accessed 24 Mar Vulnerability of Aboriginal health systems in Canada to climate change. Glob Environ Chang. Acute gastrointestinal illness in two Inuit communities: burden of illness in Rigolet and Iqaluit, Canada.
Backstory: How 'slow journalism' is uncovering untold stories in remote communities
Epidemiol Infect. A descriptive analysis of notifiable gastrointestinal illness in the Northwest Territories, Canada, BMJ Open. CBC: Water purification unit heads to Kashechewan. Accessed 26 Nov J Clean Prod. Schelwald-van der Kley L, Reijerkerk L. In: Bakker K, editor.
A way of life: Sustainable water management in a cultural context.
London: Taylor Francis Group; Vulnerability to freshwater changes in the Inuit settlement region of Nunatsiavut, Labrador: A case study from Rigolet. The land enriches the soul: On climatic and environmental change, affect, and emotional health and well-being in Rigolet, Nunatsiavut, Canada. Emot Sp Soc. Soc Sci Med.
Drinking water management: health risk perceptions and choices in First Nations and non-First Nations communities in Canada. Ekos Research Associates. Perceptions of drinking water quality in First Nations communities and general population. Landsc Urban Plan. Steg L, Sievers I. Cultural theory and individual perceptions of environmental risks. Environ Behav. Slovic P. The perception of risk. Lomborg B. The skeptical environmentalist: Measuring the real state of the world. New York: Cambridge University Press; Boykoff MT.
We speak for the trees: media reporting on the environment. Annu Rev Environ Resour. Driedger SM. Risk and the media: a comparison of print and televised news stories of a Canadian drinking water risk event. Risk Anal. The agenda-setting function of mass media. Public Opin Q. Mazur A. Global environmental change in the news: vs Int Sociol. Who cares about local politics? J Mass Commun Q. Bennet W. News: the politics of illusion. White Plains: Longman; Framing european politics: a content analysis of press and television news.
J Commun. Harding R. The media aboriginal people and common sense. Statistics Canada. Journalists for Human Rights. Newspaper topline readership: Vividata Q2. The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Fereday J, Muir-Cochrane E. Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: a hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development.
Int J Qual Methods. Braun V, Clarke V. Using thematic analysis in psychology using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol. Valenced news frames and public support for the EU: linking content analysis and experimental data. Eur J Commun.
Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues
Iyengar S. Is anyone responsible? Chicago: University of Chicago Press; Joffe H, Yardley L. Content and thematic analysis.
- ABC of Sports and Exercise Medicine.
- Stephen H. Riggins.
- Why Indigenous Languages?.
- International Day of the World's Indigenous Peoples | United Nations For Indigenous Peoples.
Research methods for clinical and health Pyschology. London: Sage; Fitzgerald M. ON: National Pos; Ashawasegai J. Nations wary about plans to reopen mine. Edmonton: Windspeaker; Fontaine P. Toronto: Toronto Star; Ha TT. Canada violates native rights, UN told. Toronto: The Globe and Mail; Diebel L. Native community lacks safe water. Howlett K. Ontario orders survey of water on reserves. MacKinnon M. Vital to improve water quality on reserves, group says. Indigenous Education Colleges and Institutes Canada.
International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs. Native Student Alliance UWindsor. Ontario Federation of Indigenous Friendship Centres.
Have a Heart Day Canada February Orange Shirt Day Canada 30 September. Aboriginal Education Centre University of Windsor. Aboriginal Initiatives Lakehead University. Aboriginal Institutes Ontario. Aboriginal Resource Centre University of Guelph. Aboriginal Resource Centre University of Ottawa. Aboriginal Student Services Brock University. American Indians at the University of Michigan. Centre for Indigenous Studies University of Toronto.
First Nations Centre Fanshawe College. Clair College. Indigenous Student Affairs Laurentian University. Office of Aboriginal Initiatives Nipissing University.
Curriculum-related documents [related to university-level] Leddy Library, UWindsor. Adams, Jodie, et al, Our Stories : First Peoples in Canada. BCcampus OpenEd open textbooks. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global. Anaya, J. United Nations Human Rights Council. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives. Canadian Human Rights Commission. Report on equality rights of Aboriginal people. Aboriginal Income Disparity in Canada. Government of Canada. United Nations. General Assembly. United Nations Department of Public Information. Canadian Health Research Collection.
Canadian Public Policy Collection. First Nation Profiles Interactive Map. Historical Debates of the Parliament of Canada. House of Commons Parliamentary Papers. Indian Affairs Annual Reports, Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada.
Related Un/Covering the North: News, Media, and Aboriginal People
Copyright 2019 - All Right Reserved